On the narration of the family of Priyavrata
1-28. The Risi Nârâyana said :– The eldest son of Svâyambhuva, Priyavrata served always his father and was very truthful. He married the daughter of the Prajâpati Vis’va Karmâ, the exceedingly lovely and beautiful Barhismatî, resembling like him, adorned with modesty, good nature and various other qualifications. He begat ten sons, very spiritual and well qualified and one daughter named Ûrjasvatî. This daughter was the youngest of all. The names of the ten sons are respectively :– (1) Âgnîdhra, (2) Idhmajibha, (3) Jajñabâhu, (4) Mahâvîra, (5) Rukmas’ukra (Hiranyaretâ), (6) Ghritapristha, (7) Savana, (8) Medhâtithi, (9) Vîtihotra and (10) Kavi.
The name “Agni” was attached to each of the above names. Out of these ten, the three sons named Kavi, Savana, and Mahâvîra were indifferent and dispassionate to the world. In due time, these became extremely free from all desires and they were proficient in Âtmavidyâ (Self-Knowledge). They were all Ûrdharetâ (of perpetual chastity; who has subdued all their passions) and took gladly to the Paramahamsa Dharma. Priyavrata had by his other wife three sons, named Uttama, Tâmasa, and Raivata. These were all widely known; each of them in due time became endowed with great prowess and splendour and became the Lord of one Manvatara. Priyavrata, the son of Svâyambhuva, the King-Emperor enjoyed with his sons and relations, this earth for eleven Arvuda years; the wonder was this, that he lived so long and there was seen no decay in his strength as regards his body or his senses. Once on an occasion, the King observed that when the sun appeared on the horizon and got up, one part of the earth was illumined and the remaining part was enveloped in darkness. Seeing this discrepancy, he thought over for a long time and exclaimed, “What! Will the Darkness be seen in my kingdom, while I am reigning? This can never be. I will stop this by my Yogic powers.” Thus thinking, the King Priyavrata mounted on a luminous chariot, as big as the Sun, to illumine the whole world and circumambulated round the earth seven times. Whatever portion of the earth was trodden by the wheel on each occasion, became an ocean. Thus the seven oceans had their origins. And the portion of the earth, that was included within the ruts, became the seven islands (Dvîpas). 0 Child! Now hear about the seven Dvîpas and the seven Oceans :– The first is the Jambu Dvîpa; the second is Plaksa, the third is S’almalî; the fourth is the Kus’a Dvîpa; the fifth is Krauncha; the sixth is the S’aka Dvîpa; and the seventh is the Puskara Dvîpa. The second Dvîpa Plaksa is twice the first Jambu Dvîpa and so on; each succeeding Dvîpa is twice as large as its previous one. Now hear the names of the oceans. The first ocean is named Ksâroda (the salt water ocean); the second is Iksurasa (the sugarcane ocean); the third is Surâ (the wine ocean), the fourth is Ghritoda (the clarified butter ocean) the fifth is Ksîroda (the ocean of milk); the sixth is Dadhi Manda (the ocean of curds); and the seventh is that of the ordinary water. The Jambu Dvîpa is surrounded by Ksîra Samudra. The King Priyavrata made his son Âgnîdhra, the lord of this Dvîpa. He gave to his Idhmajibha, the Plaksa Dvîpa surrounded by Iksu Sâgara; so he gave to Jajñabâhu the S’âlmalî Dvîpa surrounded by Surâ Sâgara and he gave the lordship of Kus’a Dvîpa to Hiranyaretâ. Then he gave to his powerful son Ghritapristha the Krauncha Dvîpa surrounded by Ksîra Samudra and to his son Medhâtithi the S’âka Dvîpa surrounded by Dadhimanda Sâgara. Finally he gave to his Vîtihotra, the Puskara Dvîpa surrounded by the ordinary water. Thus distributing duly amongst his sons, the separate divisions of the earth, he married his daughter, the youngest Ûrjasvatî to the Bhagavân Us’anâ. In the womb of Ûrjasvatî the Bhagavân S’ukrâchârya had his famous daughter Devayânî. O Child! Thus giving the charge of each Dvîpa to each of his sons and marrying his daughters to the worthy hands, he took to Viveka (discrimination) and adopted the path of Yoga.
Here ends the Fourth Chapter of the Eighth Book on the narration of the family of Priyavrata in the Mahâ Purânam, S’rî Mad Devî Bhâgavatam of 18,000 verses by Maharsi Veda Vyâsa.